What is an operating system?

Qu'Est-Ce Qu'Un Système D'Exploitation ?

Operating methods are packages that permit the computing machine to function by interfacing the consumer with the pc {hardware}. They are pre-installed on any kind of pc machine: private pc, smartphone, contact pad, e-reader, sport console, and so forth. But how do you establish your operating system? What are the primary current operating methods and their specificities? This academic article will reply these questions by offering a definition of the operating system, a listing of some most used operating methods, and sensible suggestions for figuring out its operating system and model.

Definition of an operating system

A operating system, typically abbreviated SE, (Or Operating System in English, which is typically discovered underneath the abbreviation BONE) represents all of the packages that drive the assorted parts (onerous disk, display screen, processor, reminiscence, and so forth.) of the pc machine and due to this fact permit it to function.
It due to this fact makes it potential to interface between the consumer and the pc tools. It is additionally loaded first when the machine is began.

The operating system makes it potential to function the assorted peripherals (sound card, graphics card, mouse, keyboard, and so forth.). The use of drivers (drivers in English) permit the operating system to speak and provides directions to gadgets that would not perform with out them.

There is a pre-installed operating system on any kind of pc machine: private pc, smartphone, contact pad, e-reader, sport console, and so forth.

For a broader and extra exact definition (but in addition way more technical!):

In addition, an academic video explaining what an operating system is, what it is for and the way it works.

How do I establish my operating system and its model?

So like that, you do not know which operating system you might be utilizing?

This query could seem unusual to many (effectively particularly to essentially the most geek) however, deep down, it might not be that a lot…
The common consumer simply wants to make use of his machine and is not essentially within the technical features. Not everybody essentially is aware of the facility of their automotive’s engine and all of its technical traits, however that does not forestall them from driving their automotive.

However, typically it’s good to know which operating system you might be utilizing. For instance, to obtain software program (figuring out its operating system is then essential to obtain the right model of the software program that can work on its BONE). Or give particulars to the technical assist that is attempting to resolve your pc issues (resembling an Internet Service Provider or a web site on which you might be having issues).

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So, establish the model of your OS?

It is usually potential to acknowledge when the engine begins which operating system is put in in your machine. But in case you are undecided or if you do not need to complicate your life, you may go to certainly one of these websites beneath which supplies you a variety of data resembling your operating system, your browser, your IP tackle , your display screen decision…


The major operating methods

Some Operating Systems
Some Operating Methods: Windows, Mac Os, Linux, Ios, Android

There are dozens of operating methods with their specificities. The aim right here is due to this fact to not listing all of them however moderately to speak about essentially the most used!

If you wish to have an entire listing of OS, go to Wikipedia:

Computer operating methods


Developped by Microsoft for the reason that mid-Nineteen Eighties, Windows is essentially the most broadly used operating system on private computer systems (or pc For Personal Computer in English). It is certainly pre-installed on greater than 90% of the private computer systems bought on the earth. Which is not with out elevating some questions on the degree of competitors regulation…

Many variations of Windows have been developed (together with Windows 2000, Windows XP, Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 10, Windows 11) and have succeeded one another over time.

Microsoft launched Windows 10 in July 2015. Very fashionable however nonetheless criticized (like each Microsoft OS), the launch of Windows 10 was surrounded by controversy (on promoting in Windows 10, on the quasi-forced replace to Windows 10 from older variations of Windows and so forth.). Many folks have been pressured to reset Windows 10 after updating.

While Microsoft had introduced that Windows 10 could be the final main model of Windows, the Redmond agency lastly introduced on June 24, 2021 that Windows 11 could be launched in October 2021. Windows 11 will probably be out there as a free improve for appropriate gadgets working Windows 10 / Windows 7 / Windows 8 and Windows 8.1 underneath sure circumstances (not less than 1 Ghz processor with two cores minimal, 4 GB of RAM, TPM 2.0 enabled and so forth.).

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Are you new to computer systems? And you do not know which model of Windows you might be utilizing? So learn our article to find a easy trick to establish the model of Windows put in in your pc


Also spelled macOS, it is the title of the operating system developed by Apple for his or her private computer systems. macintosh was one of many first to have a graphical interface (with menus, home windows and so forth…).

The newest model of the OS is Mac OS Big Sur which succeeds macOS Catalina, macOS Mojave, macOS High Sierra, macOS Sierra and OS X.


GNU/Linux is the kernel-based free operating system linux created in 1991.

It can be utilized on a private pc however requires a minimal of data and expertise. Even if it has turn out to be rather a lot simpler over time: it is now potential to put in a model of Linux for most people, turnkey. And with out essentially having to open a console! Linux is additionally very current and used for servers. Many of those distributions may even be examined with out having to put in them because of a Linux Live CD.

There are many Linux distributions (Ubuntu, Debian, Fedora, OpenSuse, and so forth…) which don’t have the identical graphical interface, are free or paid, with a industrial aim or not however which have in widespread the Linux kernel. If you’ve got an older pc that may’t work with the newest variations of Windows, bear in mind that there are particular Linux distributions to put in on older computer systems.

To be taught extra about Linux, I like to recommend studying our article What is Linux?

Operating methods for smartphones and tablets

The sturdy improvement of smartphones, and to a lesser extent that of tablets, has led to the looks of recent OS devoted to those cell gadgets. The market is largely dominated by two digital heavyweights, Google and Apple.

Android, Google’s OS

It is the open supply operating system based mostly on the Linux kernel and purchased by Google which equips greater than 80% of smartphones in 2015.

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It is additionally current on tablets, televisions, computer systems and linked watches. Each model of Android brings its share of enhancements and corrections. Unfortunately, solely the latest gadgets can profit from the evolutions of the OS.

iOS, Apple’s cell operating system

Operating system developed by Apple for his smartphone,iPhoneand its contact pad, theiPad. Very steady however very closed operating system (as typical with Apple).

home windows 10 cell

Successor of windows-mobile And Windows Phone, it is the operating system that equips smartphones developed by Microsoft, specifically by way of its Nokia model. Fairly little used and with far fewer functions than its direct opponents, Android and iOS. Windows 10 cell being a industrial failure, Microsoft determined to cease its improvement and assist in 2020.

Mobile OS alternate options to Android and iOS

Even if the operating system market is largely dominated by Apple and Google OSes, some different operating methods have existed or nonetheless exist:

  • HarmonyOS, the operating system developed by the Chinese producer Huawei. Developed since 2012, initially for the Internet of Things, it now powers Huawei’s newest smartphones following the US-China commerce struggle and US-imposed commerce restrictions.
  • SailfishOS which, like Android, is based mostly on the Linux kernel
  • Ubuntu Toucha cell model of Ubuntu for tablets and smartphones whose improvement was halted in April 2017
  • Firefox OS, the OS supported by the Mozilla Foundation (improvement stopped in 2016)


In conclusion, an operating system is software program that permits a pc machine to perform by interfacing between the consumer and the pc {hardware}. It is due to this fact important to function the assorted peripherals resembling sound playing cards, graphics playing cards, mice, keyboards, and so forth. The major operating methods are Windows, Mac OS, Linux, iOS and Android. Although some customers don’t have to know the technical particulars of their operating system, typically it is essential to establish them to obtain software program or clear up pc issues. Ultimately, an operating system is due to this fact a cornerstone of recent computing, with out which our digital gadgets couldn’t perform.

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